Exercise physiology applied to the human body when we train, that is, it is the response of the organism when we do a physical activity or exercise; this science studies how the body, from a functional point of view, adapts to training or exercise. That is why when we train we must know about physiology to know what happens to the player when we train and what happens to him when we train the different basic physical qualities.
Basic physical capacities depend primarily on energetic processes and are the physical capacities necessary to perform physical activities.
The basic physical qualities are: strength, endurance, speed, flexibility.
- Complementary physical qualities are the physical capacities necessary to achieve a good performance; they depend on the control of the nervous system and determine the quality of movement. They are: coordination and balance.
- Strength is the ability to maintain or overcome a bony resistance; it is the ability to support, overcome or maintain a load for as long as possible. Strength can be divided into: Endurance Strength, Explosive Strength and Maximum Strength
- Endurance is a person’s ability to sustain effort for as long as possible. Endurance can be divided into:
- Aerobic endurance: ability to withstand an effort containing low or medium intensity for as long as possible, with sufficient oxygen supply. For example, a duration of more than 3 minutes.
- Anaerobic endurance: ability to withstand an effort containing high intensity for as long as possible, with oxygen debt, are efforts lasting more than 20 seconds and less than 3 minutes.
- Speed is the ability to perform an activity in the shortest possible time; it is the distance travelled by a person in a unit of time. From the point of view of displacement, it means to cover a distance in the shortest possible time. Three types of speed can be distinguished:
- Reaction speed
- Maximum speed
- Endurance speed
Flexibility is the ability of muscles to increase in length and this allows joints to move and perform larger movements without damage.
- Muscle elasticity, which is the ability of muscles to stretch or shorten and regain their initial length.
- Joint mobility, which is the capacity of joint movements.
- Coordination is the ability of the skeletal muscles of the body to achieve synchronisation to perform a movement, both agonist and antagonist, they have to intervene at the right time at the right intensity and speed. It is an appropriate muscular excitation controlled by the nervous system. The movement must be carried out precisely what we have wanted and thought to do, that is to say the sporting gesture that is going to be performed. Coordination can be:
- General dynamic coordination, these are movements that require a joint action of all the segments of the body. Examples: jumping, running, turning, …..
- Foot-foot coordination, all movements made with the lower limbs and the ball. Example: driving, dribbling, passing, shooting,….
- Hand-eye coordination: all movements made with the upper limbs and the ball. Example the goalkeeper: kick with the hand, blocking,… player’s throw-in.
Balance is the ability to maintain any body position against the law of gravity. Types of balance:
- Dynamic balance is usually in movement and is the ability to maintain the correct position required by the sport being performed.
- Static balance, usually without movement, is the ability to keep the body upright without movement.